Friday, August 29, 2008

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Do Medications Really ExpireBy Richard Altschuler
Does the expiration date on a bottle of a medication mean anything? If a bottle of Tylenol, for example, says something like "Do not use after June 1998," and it is August 2002, should you take the Tylenol? Should you discard it? Can you get hurt if you take it? Will it simply have lost its potency and do you no good? In other words, are drug manufacturers being honest with us when they put an expiration date on their medications, or is the practice of dating just another drug industry scam, to get us to buy new medications when the old ones that purportedly have "expired" are still perfectly good? These are the pressing questions I investigated after my mother-in-law recently said to me, "It doesn't mean anything," when I pointed out that the Tylenol she was about to take had "expired" four years and a few months ago. I was a bit mocking in my pronouncement - feeling superior that I had noticed the chemical corpse in her cabinet - but she was equally adamant in her reply, and is generally very sage about medical issues. So I gave her a glass of water with the purportedly "dead" drug, of which she took two capsules for a pain in the upper back. About a half hour later she reported the pain seemed to have eased up a bit. I said "You could be having a placebo effect," not wanting to simply concede she was right about the drug, and also not actually knowing what I was talking about. I was just happy to hear that her pain had eased, even before we had our evening cocktails and hot tub dip (we were in "Leisure World," near Laguna Beach, CA, where the hot tub is bigger than most Manhattan apartments, and "Heaven" as generally portrayed, would be raucous by comparison). Upon my return to NYC and high-speed connection, I immediately scoured the medical databases and general literature for the answer to my question about drug expiration labeling. And voila, no sooner than I could say "Screwed again by the pharmaceutical industry," I had my answer. Here are the simple facts: First, the expiration date, required by law in the United States, beginning in 1979, specifies only the date the manufacturer guarantees the full potency and safety of the drug - it does not mean how long the drug is actually "good" or safe to use. Second, medical authorities uniformly say it is safe to take drugs past their expiration date - no matter how "expired" the drugs purportedly are. Except for possibly the rarest of exceptions, you won't get hurt and you certainly won't get killed. A contested example of a rare exception is a case of renal tubular damage purportedly caused by expired tetracycline (reported by G. W. Frimpter et al., in the Journal of the American Medical Association, JAMA, 184:111, 1963). This outcome (disputed by other scientists) was supposedly caused by a chemical transformation of the active ingredient. Third, studies show that expired drugs may lose some of their potency over time, from as little as 5% or less to 50% or more (though usually much less than the latter). Even 10 years after the "expiration date," most drugs have a good deal of their original potency. So wisdom dictates that if your life does depend on an expired drug, and you must have 100% or so of its original strength, you should probably toss it and get a refill, in accordance with the cliché, "better safe than sorry." If your life does not depend on an expired drug - such as that for headache, hay fever, or menstrual cramps - take it and see what happens. One of the largest studies ever conducted that supports the above points about "expired drug" labeling was done by the U.S. military 15 years ago, according to a feature story in the Wall Street Journal (March 29, 2000), reported by Laurie P. Cohen. The military was sitting on a $1 billion stockpile of drugs and facing the daunting process of destroying and replacing its supply every two to three years, so it began a testing program to see if it could extend the life of its inventory. The testing, conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, ultimately covered more than 100 drugs, prescription and over-the-counter. The results showed that about 90% of them were safe and effective as far as 15 years past their original expiration date. In light of these results, a former director of the testing program, Francis Flaherty, said he concluded that expiration dates put on by manufacturers typically have no bearing on whether a drug is usable for longer. Mr. Flaherty noted that a drug maker is required to prove only that a drug is still good on whatever expiration date the company chooses to set. The expiration date doesn't mean, or even suggest, that the drug will stop being effective after that, nor that it will become harmful. "Manufacturers put expiration dates on for marketing, rather than scientific, reasons," said Mr. Flaherty, a pharmacist at the FDA until his retirement in 1999. "It's not profitable for them to have products on a shelf for 10 years. They want turnover." The FDA cautioned there isn't enough evidence from the program, which is weighted toward drugs used during combat, to conclude most drugs in consumers' medicine cabinets are potent beyond the expiration date. Joel Davis, however, a former FDA expiration-date compliance chief, said that with a handful of exceptions - notably nitroglycerin, insulin and some liquid antibiotics - most drugs are probably as durable as those the agency has tested for the military. "Most drugs degrade very slowly," he said. "In all likelihood, you can take a product you have at home and keep it for many years, especially if it's in the refrigerator." Consider aspirin. Bayer AG puts two-year or three-year dates on aspirin and says that it should be discarded after that. However, Chris Allen, a vice president at the Bayer unit that makes aspirin, said the dating is "pretty conservative;" when Bayer has tested four-year-old aspirin, it remained 100% effective, he said. So why doesn't Bayer set a four-year expiration date? Because the company often changes packaging, and it undertakes "continuous improvement programs," Mr. Allen said. Each change triggers a need for more expiration-date testing, and testing each time for a four-year life would be impractical. Bayer has never tested aspirin beyond four years, Mr. Allen said. But Jens Carstensen has. Dr. Carstensen, professor emeritus at the University of Wisconsin's pharmacy school, who wrote what is considered the main text on drug stability, said, "I did a study of different aspirins, and after five years, Bayer was still excellent. Aspirin, if made correctly, is very stable. Okay, I concede. My mother-in-law was right, once again. And I was wrong, once again, and with a wiseacre attitude to boot. Sorry mom. Now I think I'll take a swig of the 10-year dead package of Alka Seltzer in my medicine chest - to ease the nausea I'm feeling from calculating how many billions of dollars the pharmaceutical industry bilks out of unknowing consumers every year who discard perfectly good drugs and buy new ones because they trust the industry's "expiration date labeling."

Human evolution were worked farmer, environment and make not money doctor , medicine. The human evolution was his body with thick hair, fallen not ill-fever & unfit ???. Now The animal & bird are more hair his body , fallen not ill-fever & unfit. and people are his body less hair, air - wind stormy by body unfit. u go to medical & where good medicine, loss make money.
Before year some population were researched discovery medical, medicine, but never good natural medicine. Why medicine used be kill people? The doctor & students did mistake. Normal fit people used not be medicine. Unfit people used be GENERAL medicine only, but Avoid tobacco, smoke, drink alcohol dead people. The medicine are not available/utilize tobacco, smoke, alcohol. And Weight-fat people used be nutrition diet. Weight-fat used not be medicine.
An environment is clean city, why not city clean? Touch unclean city, dirty eat/drink by damage body. The medicine never available on long late time, early dead people. A doctor stop work consultant by patient change other patient . The doctor stop emergency work, doctor’s parent, out work, children problem home & pick up phone, mobile.

Now year more population crowd consultant by medical , doctor. A doctor work busy time, busy work mistake, emergency work not time. work long time, early dead people.
Weight-fat is manufacture diet nutrition used be with fruit & vegetable and not used be medicine.( NOT kill people) The health are available remedy diet hence unfit, stop emergency medical & save make money.
Dirty clean city/village…
Follow u see dirty water in glass , u drink not dirty water. U wash glass, safe clean water. Keep bolt on water. after u drink water.
Follow u see fruit, vegetable, buy by home. U eat not fruit, vegetable. U wash fruit, vegetable. u cut a knife fruit, see dirty/poison? Throw fruit poison. New fruit ,
Clean safe , After u eat fruit, vegetable.
Follow u see person’s hand. U stop touch with person’s hand. Out toilet u wash u’re hand water. U touch dirty. Then u wash u’re hand water. After u touch person’s hand.
u stop go to medical and save u're money...

(Non Medical General Knowledge)

"Let thy food be thy medicine and thy medicine be thy food" advised Hippocrates more than 2,000 years ago. An alluring notion, to be sure. And certainly a sensible one given that food is the source of all of the components that make up the human body. But the famous Greek physician’s dietary prescriptions were hampered by a lack of under-sanding of the chemical complexity of food and the intricacies of human physiology.
Throughout history; advances in nutrition came about more or less through chance discoveries. Jacques Cartier’s second voyage to the new world in 1535 is a typical example. Many of Cartier’s men came down with scurvy, a potentially deadly ailment for which the French explorers had no solution. But the Iroquois did! These people of the first nations of North America showed the sailors how to strip leaves from a white cedar tree and boil them into a tea that was rich in vitamin C. Today we know why drinking the tea had an almost miraculous effect. Scurvy is caused by a lack of vitamin C, which is present in cedar but was almost nonexistent in the explorer’s diet while at sea.
By the 20th century researchers had discovered a number of links between diet and health. In addition to vitamin C, it became clear that 12 other vitamins, a host o minerals and a proper blend of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins were required to prevent deficiency diseases. Then as such deficiency diseases were eliminated, at least in the developed world, researchers began to shift their attention to tackling the modern plagues of heart disease, cancer and obesity. Information accumulated quickly and the first edition of Foods That Harm, Foods That Heal, published in 1977, was able to make concrete recommendations about which foods to eat and which to avoid. Since then nutritional research has exploded, allowing us to fine-tune our recommendations and offer new advice.
Tating a fresh look at various weight-loss programs. So, in this updated edition, we examine low-carb diets and investigate new findings about the glycemic index of foods. But of course, there is more to life than weight control. Recent research has used epidemiological studies, laboratory experiments, and clinical trials to tease out information about certain components of foods and help determine which ones fight disease. We discovered that lignans in flaxseed may reduce the risk of certain cancers, that beta glucan in oats lowers cholesterol, and that omega-3 fats in fish fight heart disease and maybe even depression, as well as ease allergies and inflammation-related arthritis pain. Lycopene, the red pigment in tomatoes, can reduce the risk of prostate cancer, and sulforaphane in broccoli has decided anticancer properties.
In the wake of new research findings, food itself is changing. Stanols, isolated from pine trees, are being added to some margarines to reduce blood cholesterol; inulin from chicory, which fosters the growth of beneficial bacteria in the digestive tract, is sometimes added to foods such as yogurt, and some eggs now contain omega-3 fats. On the other hand, we have also learned that hydrogenating fats introduces undesirable trans fatty acids into our food supply, and that many dietary supplements may not live up to the hype that surrounds them.
Numerous food and health questions arise everyday in our lives, and the information available is often confusing. Are artificial sweeteners safe? Can specific foods control the symptoms of menopause? Does sugar make children hyperactive? Is a glass of red win a day good for us? In this book we address all of these issues, give you the most recent scientific findings, and make practical dietary recommendations that everyone can understand. As our population ages and medical and drug costs soar, it is becoming vitally important to learn how to avoid and treat various problems through the best food choices. Many experts have shared their views about such choices here and have ensured that the reader will be armed with the most up-to-date information about foods that harm and foods that heal.
Joe Schwarcz, Ph.D.
Director, Mcgill university
Office for Science and Society
New Research Brand Product

Does this sound familiar? You finally get it into your head that margarine is better for you than butter, and then you hear a news report that in fact, some margarine might be even worse than butter-unless you buy the right kind. Or maybe you’re confused by the advice of health :experts," some of whom tell you to eat less meat, while others insist it should be front and center on your plate.
The story of food has as many twists and turns as a bowl of fusilli (pasta itself being one of the hottest subjects of debate.) Yet you don’t want to spend your time unraveling its mysteries. You just want to enjoy delicious food and I know that what you’re eating is good for you- maybe even good enough to keep the doctor away (or, since doctors no longer make house calls, to keep you away from the doctor.) Foods That Harm, Foods That Heal will show you how.
Look up Chocolate and you’ll find out why dark chocolate is better for you than milk chocolate. The Nuts and Seeds entry explains why peanut butter is now considered a good-for-you food. Tomatoes tells an anticancer tale so compelling you’ll want to fire up a jar of sauce for that bowl of fusilli right away. Elsewhere, read about the surprising, newly discovered benefits of beer and coffee.
Food can do more than keep you healthy. Like the best modern medicines, it can also help heal what ails you. If you have a specific health concern, such as arthritis or diabetes, look it up here to learn what the right diet can do. More that 80 ailment entries reflect the latest, best thinking on which foods can tame inflammation, stop an asthma attack, clean your arteries, and even guard against Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, and cancer. Turn to Depression and find inspiring reasons to eat more fish. And read Hay Fever to learn which plant foods can actually trigger symptoms.
Because the food and ailment entries are special features dedicated to key topics including Fast Food, genetically Modified Organisms, Low-Carb Diets, Pesticides and Pollutants, and Probiotics. Use them to find answers to such questions as : which fish answer to such questions as : Which fish have the lowest levels of mercury? Is organic produce worth the price? Do grilled foods cause cancer? Turn to Glycemic Index to find out how to choose foods that will give you more energy and improve your mood. Check Dieting to learn which mineral can help you lose weight. And in omega-3a and omega-6s, discover how these "goods" fata can benefit people with arthritis, diabetes, and heart disease, and where to get them.
A team of medical and nutritional experts sifted through the latest scientific studies and reports in order to separate myths from facts and help us create the most authoritative, up-to-date food reference possible. Use it to clear up nagging confusion over carbohydrates, cholesterol, fats, and more. Follow its practical advice about the foods you eat every day and how to buy and how to buy and prepare them. Trust it to help you make subtle changes to your diet that will pay off in big benefits over time.
There’s no doubt that the right diet is the best prescription of better health. And now we know more than ever before about the power of food to prevent, treat, and even cure major ailments and minor annoyances. With Foods That Harm, Foods That Heal you can use that information to look better, function better, feel better-and enjoy more years of eating well…

Xocai Healthy Chocolate
· Small meals at regular intervals.
· Alcohol, caffeine, and coffee in all forms.
· Tomato-based and other acidic foods.
Fatty foods.
Eating within 2 hours of bedtime.
Tobacco use of any kind.

Almost half of all adult North Americans have indigestion occasionally, but for some, it is a daily trial. The most common symptom of indigestion is heartburn, a burning chest pain that occurs when stomach acid and other contents flow backward, or reflux, into the esophagus. Unlike the stomach, the lining of the esophagus has no protective lining of mucus-producing tissue, so the acid products irritation and even ulcerations. Obesity and pregnancy may lead to heartburn because of increased intra-abdominal pressure, which tends to force the stomach fluids up into the esophagus. A hiatal hernia is another possible cause.
Heartburn caused by reflux can usually be controlled with a few lifestyle changes, starting with adopting a low-fat diet that includes a balance of fruits. (fatty foods take longer to digest and thus slow down the rate of food emptying from the stomach.) coffee, including decaffeinated, brands, promotes high acid production; so does tea, cola drinks, and other sources of caffeine. Citrus fruits and juices can also cause problems. There is no evidence that spicy foods-except possibly, red and black pepper-cause indigestion, but people who find that a spicy meal is followed by discomfort would be better off shunning such seasonings. Reflux is made worse by foods such as chocolate or peppermint that relax that sphincter muscle connecting the esophagus to the stomach.
Avoid large meals, especially late in the day. Try not to eat in the two hours before bedtime. Sit up straight after meals; bending over or lying down increases pressure on the stomach and promotes reflux. Stop smoking; nicotine relaxes the sphincter muscle. Limit alcohol intake to an occasional glass of wine or beer.
The use of nonprescription antacids to treat heartburn by neutralizing stomach acid is questionable; the problem is not too much acid, but acid in the wrong place. If you find that they do help, follow instructions and never take them for longer than recommended. "proton pump inhibitors". Such as omeprazole are very effective drugs for acid reflux.

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